A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town in general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.
Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, and transportation. The concentration of development greatly facilitates interaction between people and businesses, benefiting both parties in the process, but it also presents challenges to managing urban growth.
There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities. Some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces.
Legally, a city in Washington can be described primarily by its class. There are five classes of cities in Washington:
10 first class cities
9 second class cities
1 unclassified city
192 code cities
First class cities are cities with a population over 10,000 at the time of reorganization and operating under a home rule charter. They are permitted to perform any function specifically granted them by Title 35 RCW (Revised Code of Washington). Among them are Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Vancouver, and Yakima.
Second class cities are cities with a population over 1,500 at the time of reorganization and operating without a home rule charter. Like first class cities, they are permitted to perform any function specifically granted them by Title 35 RCW. Among them are Port Orchard, Wapato, and Colville.
Towns are municipalities with a population of under 1,500 at the time of reorganization. Towns are not authorized to operate under a charter. Like the previously listed cities, they are permitted to perform any function specifically granted them by Title 35 RCW. Among them are Steilacoom, Friday Harbor, Eatonville, and Waterville. In 1994, the legislature made 1,500 the minimum population required to incorporate.
Texas has a total of 254 counties, by far the largest number of counties of any state.
Each county is run by a five-member Commissioners' Court consisting of four commissioners elected from single-member districts (called commissioner precincts) and a county judge elected at-large. The county judge does not have authority to veto a decision of the commissioners court; the judge votes along with the commissioners (being the tie-breaker in close calls). In smaller counties, the county judge actually does perform judicial duties, but in larger counties the judge's role is limited to serving on the commissioners court and certifying elections. Certain officials, such as the sheriff and tax collector, are elected separately by the voters, but the commissioners court determines their office budgets, and sets overall county policy. All county elections are partisan, and commissioner precincts are redistricted after each ten year Census both to equalize the voting power in each and in consideration of the political party preferences of the voters in each.
Surface is an Americandesign, Architecture, and fashionmagazine. The magazine is published 10 times a year. Surface magazine covers in depth design profiles of prominent architects, designers, artists and photographers. Marc Lotenburg is the CEO and Spencer Bailey is the Editor in Chief.
Surface was founded in 1993 by Richard Klein and Riley Johndonnell. The magazine was based in San Francisco until 2005, when the main offices moved to New York City.
In 1994, Surface Magazine was one of 10 magazines dubbed as “upstart magazines to watch” by Vanity Fair.
In 1997, Surface introduced its first Avant Guardian issue, which focused on the Avant Guardian Awards, a photography competition that presents an opportunity for up and coming photographers to gain recognition and jumpstart their careers in the fashion editorial world. Winners have gone on to work for world renowned fashion houses and magazines like Giorgio Armani, Hermès, Banana Republic, Nike, IBM and Levi's—as well as magazines like Vogue, Elle, Harper’s Bazaar, Mademoiselle, and The New York Times Magazine. 10 finalists are chosen by heads of fashion and design, and have their work featured in a blowout fashion spread and showcased at a special launch event.
Pre-orders for the Surface 2 were opened on September 24, 2013, and the device was released on October 22, 2013. As value-added services, the Surface 2 includes 200 GB of additional OneDrive storage for 2 years, and 1 year of free Skype calls to landlines and access to Skype WiFi hotspots.
In January 2015, after its stock sold out on Microsoft Store online, Microsoft confirmed that it had discontinued further production of Surface 2. After Surface 2, the Nokia Lumia 2520 was the only remaining Windows RT device on the market, before that being discontinued too just a week later.
Made of magnesium alloy and toughened glass, the outer shell of Surface 2 maintains a similar design to its predecessor, but in a "bare metal" silver color scheme with a black bezel. Surface 2 is also slightly thinner and lighter than the previous model. Surface 2 uses a 1.7GHz quad-core NvidiaTegra 4 chipset with 2 GB of RAM; Microsoft claimed that the new chipset and other improvements to its internal hardware made the Surface 2 three to four times faster than the original Surface, and that it had 10 hours of battery life playing videos. Unlike the original Surface (which used a 1366 x 768 display), the Surface 2 uses a 1080p display, the same as in Surface Pro 2. This display is claimed to have almost 50% better color than the previous version, as well as the lowest reflectivity among competing tablets.
The device also includes a full-size USB 3.0 port, 32 or 64 GB of internal storage, and a MicroSD slot. The Surface 2 ships with Windows RT 8.1.